How do I study the anatomy of a flowering plant, plant respiration and human reproduction?

For studying the anatomy of a flowering plant, candidates can refer the book “Angiosperms: A textbook of botany” written by Singh-Pande-Jain.

Anatomy of flowering plants

  • Anatomy can be defined as the study of internal structure and functional organization of an organism.
  • The basic unit of plants are cells which are organized into tissues which in turn are organized into organs.
  • The different organs in a plant exhibit differences in their internal structures.

For example, the monocots and dicots in angiosperms are seen to be anatomically different.

  • Internal structures also exhibit adaptations to different environments.

The tissues

  • A tissue can be described as group of cells which have a common origin and does a common function.
  • Tissues are divided into two main groups, namely, meristematic and permanent tissues which are based on whether the cells are capable of dividing or not.

Meristematic tissues

  • The growth in plants is limited to specialized regions of active cell division which are known as meristems.
  • The meristems which are present at the tip of roots and shoots and which make primary tissues are called as apical meristems.

Permanent tissues

  • The tissues which are made of the permanent or mature cells that does not divide are called permanent tissues.
  • Permanent tissues which have all cells similar in structure and function are known as simple tissues.
  • Permanent tissues which have many different kinds of cells are known as complex tissues.

Simple tissues

  • The different types of simple tissues in plants are parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.

For studying plant respiration, candidates can refer to the book “Plant Physiology” by Taiz-Zeiger.

What is plant respiration?

All living organisms, including plants, receive their energy which are needed for their survival from a series of chemical reactions known as respiration. The process of respiration requires glucose for the reactions which are changed into energy and later become carbon dioxide and water as by-products.

The process by which cells get chemical energy by taking in oxygen and taking out carbon dioxide is known as respiration. For respiration to take place, plants need oxygen and a means of liberating carbon dioxide just like animal cells do. In plants, all parts such as root, stem does the process of respiration as plants do not have any particular organs like animals for the exchange of gases.You can visit here to know about the taylorsource. On the other hand, you can also get more essential info on forexrenkocharts

The method of respiration is as best bee flowers:

Oxygen + Glucose = Water + Carbon Dioxide with energy

Do plants breathe?

Plants do not have any specialized organs like lungs. So, plants do not breathe, they respire. Plants respire with the aid of lenticels and stomata which does the function of the gaseous exchange.

Role of air temperature

Plants respire 24 hours a day. But night respiration is more prominent as the photosynthesis process gets over. It is very important that the night temperature is cooler as compared to the day time because plants can undergo stress.

Respiration in roots

Plants respire with the help of roots. In soil oxygenated air there is spaces between soil particles. The oxygen then gets absorbed into the roots with the help of root hair present on the roots. For More Information Visit this site: views360

Types of respiration

There are two types of respiration which is based on the basis of the absence or presence of oxygen.

Aerobic respiration

The respiration which takes place in the presence of oxygen is called aerobic respiration.

Anaerobic respiration

The respiration which takes place in the absence of oxygen is called as anaerobic respiration.

For studying human reproduction, candidates can refer to the book ‘The human physiologies’ written by Guyton or Ganong.

Do you know the answer of the below question:

  1. Assertion: A simple tissue is made of only one type of cells. Reason: Various simple tissues in plants are parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.
  2. A) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion
  3. B) if both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
  4. C) if assertion is true but reason is false.
  5. D) if both assertion and reason are false.

Introduction to human reproduction

Human beings reproduce sexually and are viviparous. The stages of sexual reproduction in human beings are:

  • Gametogenesis- It is the process by which gametes are formed.
  • Insemination- It is the process by which sperms are transferred into the ovum.
  • Fertilization- it is process by which male and female gametes are fused to form a single celled zygote.
  • Implantation- it is the process by which the embryo is attached to the endometrial wall of uterus of female.
  • Gestation- The period in which the embryo develops is called gestation.
  • Parturition- It is the process by which babies are delivered.

Male reproductive system

Male reproductive system is situated in the pelvis region consisting of a pair of testes, glands, accessory ducts, external genitalia.


  • Testes are smooth organ located outside the abdominal cavity inside a pouch.
  • The scrotum keeps the temperature of the testes lower than the normal internal body temperature by 2-2.5degree C.

Female reproductive system

Female reproductive system is situated in the pelvic region consisting of a pair of ovaries, a pair of oviducts, uterus, cervix, vagina and the external genitalia. A pair of mammary glands is also there to assist the process of ovulation, fertilization, gestation, parturition and post-natal care. Accessory ducts are made of a pair of oviducts, uterus, cervix and vagina. More Information Click Here: sttmag

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